Living Systems as Energy Converters documents the proceedings of the European Conference on Living Systems as Energy Converters held in Pont-a-Mousson, France on October 18-22, 1976. This book is organized into three main topics-energy in biological molecules; biological membranes as energy transducers; and energy in cells, organisms, and populations. In these topics, this compilation specifically discusses the energetic evolution of complex networks of reactions; protein ss-structure and the molecular evolution of biological energy conversion; and structure and function of ATP synthase. The calcium transport in biological membranes; conversion of solar energy into energy-rich phosphate compounds; and energy conservation in photosynthetic electron transport of chloroplasts are also deliberated. This text likewise covers the direct conversion of radiant into electrical energy using plant systems; energy budgets in natural and agricultural ecosystems; and recycling of excess carbon dioxide from fossil energy conversion by plants. This publication is intended for biologists and physical-chemists, including students concerned with the study of living systems as energy converters.